Digital Video Signal
  • lines of resolution
    • examples
      • 100 lines in video
      • for 4:3 display, each line of the display contains 3/4 line of video
      • for 16:9 display, each line of the display contains 9/16 line of video, the lines of resolution are lower.
  • ITU BT.2020(UHDTV)
CIExy1931_Rec_2020_and_Rec_709.svg
  • ITU BT.709(High Definition Television, HDTV)
  • 540p
  • 810i
  • 720p
    • resolution 1280x720(aspect ratio 16:9)
  • part 2
    • 1080i
    • full HD/ full high definition(1080p)
      • resolution 1920x1080(aspect ratio 16:9)
      • frame rate 24/25/30 50/60
      • 1000/1001-rate slow versions 23.97/24.97/29.97
  • ITU BT.1358(Enhanced Digital Television, EDTV)
  • 576p
    • PAL System
  • 480p
    • ATSC/NTSC System
  • ITU BT.601, BT.656(Standard Definition Television, SDTV)
  • ITU CCIR656與601的不同點, video CCIR656 & CCIR601 信號分別說明
    • (1) CCIR656是標準規格,包含8-bit data與一個 CLOCK, 共9 pins, HS and VS則以特定code的形式內藏於data中。後端處理時,需先解出HS and VS.(應用時,由於是標準,不管是Front Porch, Back Porch,都是標準寬度,任何decoder解出來影像顯示在面板上的位置應該都要相同)
      • 在 CCIR656 中,有 8 bit 的 data bus 和 clock 的訊號,也就是說 CCIR656 是同步傳輸的,decoder 端不用自己產生 clock。
    • (2) CCIR601非標準規格,常用有8-bit與16-bit形式,另加HS, VS, CLOCK 3 pins。故8-bit mode共11 pins, 16-bit mode共19 pins. (應用時,由於非標準,Front Porch, Back Porch寬度可自己定義,因此大家定的有差異時,影像顯示在面板上的位置會有差異)
      • 在 CCIR601 中,訊號內包含了兩個同步訊號:Horizontal Synchronization 和 Vertical Synchronization,decoder 要自己去鎖定這個同步訊號再自己產生 clock 來解.
  • 576i
    • resolution 960x576(aspect ratio 16:9)
    • resolution 720x576(aspect ratio 4:3)
    • 625-line 50 Hz
    • PAL or SECAM System
  • 480i
    • resolution 960x480(aspect ratio 16:9)
    • resolution 720x480(aspect ratio 4:3)
    • 525 line 60 Hz
    • ATSC/NTSC System
  • Standard-definition television
    • In ATSC Standards, SDTV can be broadcast in 720 pixels × 480 lines with 16:9 aspect ratio (40:33 rectangular (unsquare) pixel), 720 pixels × 480 lines with 4:3 aspect ratio (10:11 rectangular pixel) or 640 pixels × 480 lines with 4:3 ratio. The refresh rate can be 24, 30 or 60 frames per second.
  • M-JPEG(motion JPEG)
  • digital video tape format
  • stored uncompressed digitized component video, encoded at Y'CbCr 4:2:2 using the CCIR 601 raster format, along with PCM audio tracks as well as timecode on a 19 mm (3/4") cassette tape
subsample.gif
  • Subsampling Scheme
    • J: horizontal sampling reference (width of the conceptual region). Usually, 4.
    • a: number of chrominance samples (Cr, Cb) in the first row of J pixels.
    • b: number of (additional) chrominance samples (Cr, Cb) in the second row of J pixels.
    • Alpha: horizontal factor (relative to first digit). May be omitted if alpha component is not present, and is equal to J when present.
  • Range extension
    • A range extension feature gives studio professionals the advantage of using the monitor's entire 10-bit grayscale range to see more detail when doing fine editing work in very dark and very light tones. Setting the screen to show the entire 10-bit grayscale range reveals either 6% or 14% more gray tones from 0 (true black) to 1023 (true white) compared to common broadcast signal display range capabilities.
  • Super Black/Super White
    • YUV and RGB do not traditionally have the same ‘black’ and ‘white’ levels. In 8-bit YUV, black is represented as ‘16’ but in 8-bit RGB black is ‘0’, and 8-bit YUV white is ‘235’ but 8-bit RGB white is ‘255’. Any values under 16 in YUV are considered Super Black and any values over 235 are considered Super White.
    • On a computer, using 8-bit video, black is at 0, while white is at 255. On television, black is at 16 and white is at 235. (Video engineers might prefer these numbers as IRE units, where computer black is 0 IRE, video black in the U.S. is 7.5 IRE, video white is 100 IRE, and computer white is 109 IRE).
    • Full Range RGB(or Computer Range RGB): 0-255 RGB
      • This is considered converting YUV to Full Range RGB because the 16-235 values of YUV are expanded and mapped to the Full Range 0-255 of RGB.
    • SMPTE Range RGB(or Video Range RGB): 16-235 RGB
      • This is considered converting YUV to SMPTE Range RGB because the 16-235 values of YUV are mapped to 16-235 RGB.
    • SMPTE RANGE RGB and FULL RANGE RGB basics
    • Black & White vs. Super-Black & Super-White
Settings Function
On The output range of the signalis extended from 16-254 to 0-255 for display. SMPTE Range RGB: Convert 16-235 YUV to 16-235 RGB
Off The output range of the signalis extended from 16-235 to 0-255 for display. Full Range RGB: Convert 16-235 YUV to 0-255 RGB
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